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Shulchan Aruch, Orach Chayim 287:

יכולים לנחם אבלים בשבת וכן יכולים לבקר את החולה ולא יאמר לו כדרך שאומר לו בחול אלא אומר לו שבת היא מלזעוק ורפואה קרובה לבא ורחמיו מרובים ושבתו בשלום הגה וי״א דאין צריך לומר ורחמיו מרובים וכו׳ וכן נהגו.

If I understand it correctly, this means:

One may console mourners on Shabas, and one may likewise visit the sick. But he should not say to him as he does on a weekday, telling him rather "It is Shabas, preventing crying out; healing is soon to come; His mercies are great; spend Shabas in peace". Hagaha: But some say it's unnecessary to say "His mercies are great", etc., and [omitting it] is the custom.

Indeed, the prevalent custom when wishing sick people well on Shabas is to say "שבת היא מלזעוק ורפואה קרובה לבא / It is Shabas, preventing crying out; healing is soon to come", as prescribed.

Mishna B'rura comments on "כדרך שאומר לו בחול / as he does on a weekday":

דמצטער ומעורר הבכי דאסור בשבת.‏ / for he feels pain and arouses crying, which is forbidden on Shabas.

What does "שבת היא מלזעוק / It is Shabas, preventing crying out" refer to? Specifically: Who is meant as being prevented from crying out? (The patient? The visitor?) And what sort of crying out is meant? (Crying out in anguish? in prayer?)

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Related: judaism.stackexchange.com/q/27631 – msh210 Apr 3 '13 at 15:22
Related: judaism.stackexchange.com/q/65367 – msh210 Nov 15 '15 at 0:40

As far as I understand it it means "It is a resting day of praying for personal needs (and that's why we are not praying for you) but we bless you that a healing is soon to come". That is why the Chabad custom is to say שבת היא מלזעוק on Yom Tov as well as opposed to יום טוב הוא מלזעוק. If the patient is dangerously ill then direct praying is allowed on Shabbos and Yom Tov.

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