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Jews believe that the Messiah has not yet come yet; we see that most of the Jews of the world have already gathered in Israel, so the exile has practically ended. They have constructed a nation of Israel. So does that mean that the first prime minister(Head) of the current Israel could be the awaited Messiah the succeeding ministers being the successor of the Messiah ?

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tldr: Not yet. ​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​ –  Double AA Mar 12 '13 at 22:43
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No. See the following list from the Rambam of what Mashiach will/must do:

In the future, the Messianic king will arise and renew the Davidic dynasty, restoring it to its initial sovereignty. He will build the Temple and gather the dispersed of Israel.

Then, in his days, the observance of all the statutes will return to their previous state. We will offer sacrifices, observe the Sabbatical and Jubilee years according to all their particulars as described by the Torah.

  • Israel didn't re-institute kings of the Davidic dynasty.
  • Israel didn't rebuild the Temple, nor did it gather the dispersed of Israel (less than 50% of known Jews live in Israel.
  • Unfortunately, we don't have "the observance of all the statutes will return to their previous state" (if anything, it's much worse now than ever before).
  • We have no sacrifices, Shmitta or Yovel (at least the latter of which requires that we know which tribes one come from) .

Similarly, with regard to the cities of refuge, Deuteronomy 19:8-9 states: 'When God will expand your borders... you must add three more cities.' This command was never fulfilled. Surely, God did not give this command in vain.

  • We didn't conquer transjordan, so we didn't make any cities of refuge there.

If a king will arise from the House of David who diligently contemplates the Torah and observes its mitzvot as prescribed by the Written Law and the Oral Law as David, his ancestor, will compel all of Israel to walk in (the way of the Torah) and rectify the breaches in its observance, and fight the wars of God, we may, with assurance, consider him Mashiach.

  • Unfortunately, Israel does non of the above.

If he succeeds in the above, builds the Temple in its place, and gathers the dispersed of Israel, he is definitely the Mashiach.

  • Unfortunately, Israel does non of the above.

He will then improve the entire world, motivating all the nations to serve God together, as Tzephaniah 3:9 states: 'I will transform the peoples to a purer language that they all will call upon the name of God and serve Him with one purpose.'

  • Unfortunately, Israel does non of the above.

If he did not succeed to this degree or was killed, he surely is not the redeemer promised by the Torah. Rather, he should be considered as all the other proper and complete kings of the Davidic dynasty who died. God caused him to arise only to test the many, as Daniel 11:35 states: 'And some of the wise men will stumble, to try them, to refine, and to clarify until the appointed time, because the set time is in the future.'

  • Unfortunately, Israel doesn't even try.

Jesus of Nazareth who aspired to be the Mashiach and was executed by the court was also alluded to in Daniel's prophecies, as ibid. 11:14 states: 'The vulgar among your people shall exalt themselves in an attempt to fulfill the vision, but they shall stumble.'

Can there be a greater stumbling block than Christianity? All the prophets spoke of Mashiach as the redeemer of Israel and their savior who would gather their dispersed and strengthen their observance of the mitzvot. In contrast, Christianity caused the Jews to be slain by the sword, their remnants to be scattered and humbled, the Torah to be altered, and the majority of the world to err and serve a god other than the Lord.

When the true Messianic king will arise and prove successful, his position becoming exalted and uplifted, they will all return and realize that their ancestors endowed them with a false heritage and their prophets and ancestors caused them to err.

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"Israel didn't ... gather the dispersed of Israel (less than 50% of known Jews live in Israel. [sic]" Since when is that the criteria for an all-or-nothing gathering? Israel has gathered 45% of known Jews. Is that meaningless? –  Double AA Mar 12 '13 at 22:28
    
Israel does compel Jews do follow certain restrictions (kiddushin/gittin, selling chametz on pesach, buses on Shabbat). So they do "some of the above". –  Double AA Mar 12 '13 at 22:30
    
@DoubleAA It's mashma that one needs to gather all, or else what is the difference between what we have know and what we had under the Ottomans (when Jews also lived in Israel), or even more so, under the 2nd beis hamikdash –  Shmuel Brin Mar 12 '13 at 22:30
    
Doesn't even try what? That paragraph doesn't have an action in it. –  Double AA Mar 12 '13 at 22:31
    
@DoubleAA they don't force regular Israelis to sell their Chametz. Buses on Shabbos are a small part of what goes on in Israel (and is still subsidized by the government). –  Shmuel Brin Mar 12 '13 at 22:33
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No, and I'll explain why: First, as per this list, only 42.5% of world Jewry was in Israel in 2010, so "most" of the Jews are not in Israel.

Second, the exile is a function of lost spirituality, not just physical presence. The return to Zion will end the exile when god decides we are on the spiritual level for the proper return. Simply moving there, while efficacious towards many ends, is not a way to jump over our current spiritual status.

Third, the nation constructed is a modern political entity, not a theocratic kingdom of Israel. Had the messiah already come via the first prime minister, we would have a religious state, not a secular one with aspects of religiosity. (and other aspects of religion would infuse all mankind).

Fourth, the first prime minister was not the messiah because all of the messianic prophecies were not fulfilled through him or during his tenure. Judaism doesn't have a notion of a succession of messiahs who will effect the messianic age. This is to say nothing of the issue of the prime minister's (current or past) personal qualifications towards being the messiah.

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It's also questionable whether a prime minister could be considered a king, although I heard R' Hershel Schachter say that, in his opinion, the government מדינת ישראל has a din of מלכות ישראל. I seem to recall that he said that in his opinion a prime minister has the din of a melech, but I'm not absolutely sure if I remember that right. –  Fred Mar 13 '13 at 1:36
    
I don't know if he said that, @Fred, but I've heard similar sentiments from others about the government as a whole being a Malchuth Yisrael (not any one office holder, though, having a din of Melech). –  Seth J Mar 13 '13 at 3:36
    
@SethJ Lemai nafkah minah "din Malchuth Yisrael"? –  Double AA Mar 14 '13 at 6:24
    
@doubleaa IIRC war. –  Seth J Mar 14 '13 at 12:17
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Not quite, but maybe.

First, some corrections. The exile is by no means a function of lost spirituality. Imagine if all Jews lived in Israel, but they were always sinning and otherwise "lost" in spirituality - would you actually say that they are in exile, despite all living in Israel? Indeed, this was the condition of the Jews throughout much of Biblical/Prophetic history, before the first or second exile. Would you say that they were in exile, before an exile had occurred? Granted, it was sin that led them to become exiled, but exile itself is the condition of being forced out or otherwise incapable of living in one's homeland - and has nothing to do with spirituality.

Secondly, although only about 50% of Jews currently live in Israel, basically 100% could easily live in Israel if they wanted to. The political and even financial barriers that were up for almost 2000 years are now down, in the way that our ancestors literally prayed for. Today, when we pray for ingathering of the exiles, God probably laughs - He's done all He needs to, its time we just bought a plane ticket.

Also, 100% residence should never be our standard for saying the exile is over - what, we can't have any expats, or people living away for school/business? So, I'm not saying that the exile is officially over, but one can make a very easy argument that it is.

Next: What's wrong with a state being a "modern political entity"? (Isn't that, by definition, what any state would be today - even a theocratic one?) If the claim is that the Messiah couldn't have come if Israel is still a democracy which respects human rights and personal liberties . . . is that the kind of Messiah you are waiting for? The halakhot as to what a Messianic state should look like are, by their nature, undeveloped and not settled. And mind you, Tanakh is extremely explicit in its skepticism of kings and monarchies. So, yes, I think we could easily have a Messianic state that functions like a liberal democracy.

That said, I don't think Prime Ministers (or the first) can count as the Messiah. We are missing a number of critical components in the Messianic vision. First - and most important - Jews must live in peace, a condition that the State of Israel has yet to attain. Second, there must be at least some consummation of the hope of a Third Temple being built. (I prefer more liberal versions of this, that don't envision an actual re-hashing of animal smoke offerings. But still, that hope most be consummated in some sense.) Third, there must be some kind of "new recognition" of the moral teachings of God/Israel, in a way that allows for a more moral, peaceful, fruitful world order.

None of these three things have yet to be reached.

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Re: "100% residence should never be our standard for saying the exile is over": Indeed, there continued to be Jews in Persia during the Second Temple period. –  ruakh Mar 12 '13 at 20:56
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@ruakh it wasn't mashiach time then either –  Shmuel Brin Mar 12 '13 at 22:44
    
So it's your opinion that if all (100%) of Jews moved to Israel, and them promptly converted to <foreign religion>, we would still be considered "redeemed"? In your mind, the Messianic Era necessitates no religious observance? I don't think so, your last paragraph precludes that. So are you arguing that the end of exile does not necessarily usher in the Messianic Era? –  HodofHod Mar 12 '13 at 23:07
    
@HodofHod "So are you arguing that the end of exile does not necessarily usher in the Messianic Era?": That would seem obvious, because the Jews in Israel during the Second Temple Period weren't in exile. –  Double AA Mar 14 '13 at 6:22
    
@DoubleAA It has been my understanding that Golus Edom will, however. –  HodofHod Mar 14 '13 at 6:52
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