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It says in Mesechet Shabbos 151b "R' Chanina said: It is forbidden to sleep alone in a house..."

Is this the Halacha?

And are Jews typically careful about this nowadays? If not, why not?

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Mishna B'rura 239:9 –  jake Mar 10 '13 at 18:46
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Although not brought in Shulchan Aruch, the prohibition is mentioned in Magen Avraham (239:7) and Mishna Berura (:9). For comprehensive discussion about the particulars of this, see Shmiras Haguf Vehanefesh (vol. 1 pg. 339). Practical solutions to get out of this problem include leaving the door to the room unlocked, or leaving a light on in the house. Some hold that the problem only applies in a room that does not have a mezzuza, though others argue. It is also a subject of argument whether this is a problem for women or just men. Obviously for all matters of practical halacha, CYLOR.

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See Magen Avraham 239:7 one should not sleep alone,see inside why.There are many sources who say not sleep alone ,from the gemara to the achronim.The one exception some say is a succha because of the protection of the mitzvah.

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Where does this apply practically today? Does it mean that a college student should keep his door open if his roommate is away (or doesn't have a roommate)? What does somebody do on a business trip, etc.? What does a child who has no siblings do? Etc... –  chaimp Mar 10 '13 at 18:58
    
See kaf Hachaim about lamps and gemarah berachas 43 about light. –  sam Mar 10 '13 at 19:13
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