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Before going to redeem the Jews Moshe asks God what his name is. God says to Moshe in the pasuk (shemos 3:14) that he should be referred to as אֶהְיֶ-ה אֲשֶׁר אֶהְיֶ-ה. To which Moshe responds (see Rashi) O Lord of the universe! Why should I mention to them another trouble? They have enough [problems] with this one.” God agrees with Moshe and opts to tell the people that אֶהְיֶ-ה is sending Moshe.

My question is was there a specific trouble to which the second אֶהְיֶ-ה was referring? If so do we know which one it was (I don't believe that name of God is ever used again)?

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why no hyphen in אשר? – Double AA Mar 10 '13 at 4:25
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@DoubleAA I wasn't sure if the whole thing was a name of God or just אֶהְיֶ-ה. You can edit if I made a mistake, though I have often heard people pronounce it Akyeh asher Akyeh without treating אשר differently. – not-allowed to change my name Mar 10 '13 at 4:29
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The Rashi you mentioned says '“I will be” with them in this predicament “what I will be” with them in their subjugation by other kingdoms.' -- is that not specific enough? – Menachem Mar 10 '13 at 7:06
    
@Menachem not specific enough for me. does it mean all? We don't find it used elsewhere (to my knowledge) so I was curious if chazal indicated when else God was manifest in that way (or if perhaps it will occur in the future) – not-allowed to change my name Mar 10 '13 at 18:21

Yirmiyahu 23:7-8 states:

לָכֵן הִנֵּה-יָמִים בָּאִים, נְאֻם-יְהוָה; וְלֹא-יֹאמְרוּ עוֹד חַי-יְהוָה, אֲשֶׁר הֶעֱלָה אֶת-בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרָיִם: כִּי אִם-חַי-יְהוָה, אֲשֶׁר הֶעֱלָה וַאֲשֶׁר הֵבִיא אֶת-זֶרַע בֵּית יִשְׂרָאֵל מֵאֶרֶץ צָפוֹנָה, וּמִכֹּל הָאֲרָצוֹת, אֲשֶׁר הִדַּחְתִּים שָׁם; וְיָשְׁבוּ, עַל-אַדְמָתָם.

Therefore, days are coming, says Hashem, and they will no longer say, 'As Hashem lives, He who took the children of Israel out of the land of Egypt'; but rather, 'As Hashem lives, He who led the house of Israel out of the north country (Galut Bavel), and from all the countries to which I had pushed them off'; and they will live in their own land.

This demonstrates that Hashem's wondrous redemption from Galut is even greater than His redemption from Egypt-- and so, if we're choosing the two great times we needed saving and Hashem saved us, Shibud Mitzrayim and Galut Bavel are your two.

Accordingly, the second "Eheyeh" refers to redemption from Galut Bavel.

*Edited for msh210's question

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Can you support your final sentence? I don't see any support for it in the quotation you cite. – msh210 Jan 3 at 23:34
    
This demonstrates that Hashem's wondrous redemption from Galut is even greater than His redemption from Egypt-- and so, if we're choosing the two great times we needed saving and Hashem saved us, Shibud Mitzrayim and Galut Bavel are your two. – ephraim helfgot Jan 3 at 23:41

The Maharsha to Brachos 9b (the source of Menachem's quote) says:

משום דכתיבי בהאי קרא ב' אמירות ויאמר אלהים אהיה וגו' ויאמר כה תאמר וגו' ובראשונה כתיב ב' פעמים אהיה ובשניה לא כתיב רק פ"א אהיה וע"כ אמרו כי חסר מן הכתוב בין ב' האמירות תשובת משה דיה לצרה בשעתה ובשמות רבה א"ל כה תאמר לבני ישראל אהיה וגו' לך אני מודיע להם איני מודיע ע"כ ר"ל שא"ל הקב"ה אתה לא הבנת דברי כי גם אני כונתי לכך לך אני מודיע אהיה עמהם בצרה אחרת ולהם איני מודיע אלא כה תאמר לבני ישראל אהיה וגו' ואל תזכור להם צרה אחרת והוא מבואר שהבטיח לנו הקב"ה בשם הוי"ה שאנו דבקים בו וישאר לנו הוי"ה בכל השעבודים ולא יבא לנו הפסד וכליון ח"ו באורך הגלות וק"ל:

The Maharsha says that the fact that we weren't destroyed during the long exile (just look at the amount of times the Jews were almost destroyed over the past 2000 years!!) is the promise which Hashem gave to Moshe.

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