What are the abominations that Bnei Yisrael should desist from, which would cause it to break the covenant of God. And has the covenant been broken in the past?
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There are a number of verses that indicate that the covenant cannot be broken.
This is the traditional Jewish understanding of the covenant in question.
See Exodus 19:17 which says that Bnei Yisroel were under the mountain. Rashi brings the Gemara (Shabbos 88a) and Midrash Yalkut Yisro that G-d literally lifted Har Sinai over the Jews' heads and said "if you accept the Torah, good, but if not, you will be buried there."
Why did G-d force the Bnei Yisroel to accept the covenant when they had already accepted it sight unseen in Exodus 19:8? The Midrash connects it to the law of a rape victim. Devarim 22:29 says that when a man rapes a woman, he must marry her and can never divorce her.
Accepting the covenant was a wedding, with G-d as the groom and Yisroel as the bride. Even though we agreed to marry Him, He forced us into it, so to speak, so that He would be thereby obligated to never break His covenant with us, no matter how far we might stray.