Does the Tanach contain stories of the past nations who failed to identify a true Prophet whom God sent and what were the reasons given by those people to reject that true Prophet of God?
No, it does not. When peoples are criticized in Tanach, it's for bad behaviors, not for not accepting people who claim to be prophets.
With the exception of Bil'am, whom no one was criticized for ignoring, the only prophets described in Tanach are within the Jewish Nation. There aren't stories of other peoples getting their own prophets to hear from, much less ignore.