This is a riddle that was put to us in my kollel dayyanim. Two men set out on a journey together. One brings three loaves of bread, the other two. When they are getting ready for their meal, another man comes up. He explains that he has no food, but he would like to join them so that they can make zimmun, and he will pay them for his share. So they split the bread equally amongst themselves. When they are done the third man pays them 5 silver dinarim.
The two begin to argue over how to split it. The person who brought three loaves, wants to split it 3-2. And the other was a 50/50 split. As they cannot resolve this between themselves they go to the Beit Din. Both men take upon themselves to follow the decision of the Beit Din no matter what. The Beit Din hears their case and issues their ruling. The one who brought 3 loaves gets 4 dinarim and the one who brought two loaves gets 1.
The second man is shocked. He would have gotten a better deal by accepting his partners initial proposal. However, having accepted their decision upon himself there is not much he can do. So he asks the Dayyanim to explain how they arrived at their decision.
They answered him. What did they say? Why did they give the one 4 and the other 1?