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If you plant a seed shortly before the end of shabbat (zoraya) and then un-bury it after shabbat, or you put an uncooked food into an oven and then take it out within seconds without it having baked (ofeh). Have you transgressed a melacha or not?

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Or if you turn on and off a light? ;) –  HodofHod Dec 27 '12 at 4:53
    
@HodofHod What melacha is involved in turning off a light? There's no charcoal created so at best it's kibui sheino tzarich legufo. –  Double AA Dec 27 '12 at 5:10
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@DoubleAA I didn't mean that there was one, I was giving an example of one that's relatively common. –  HodofHod Dec 27 '12 at 5:12
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see the igley tal, it's a machlokes –  user2110 Dec 27 '12 at 14:34
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One of the principles enumerated by the Tif'eres Yisra'el in Kalkeles HaShabbas to be liable is that the mal'achah done has to endure; if it doesn't endure, he is not liable for it (though it is still forbidden). However, he says that for some mel'achos, among them planting, one is liable for them even if it doesn't endure. (I did read in the name of the Aruch that a person is liable for planting even only if it endures; however, I can't remember where I read that and I can't find a reference to that Aruch.)

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