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In the song Maoz Tzur it says

לְעֵת תָּכִין מַטְבֵּחַ מִצָּר הַמְנַבֵּחַ -

which the OU translates as -

When You will have prepared the slaughter for the blaspheming foe.

Who is this blaspheming foe of which we sing?

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It probably refers to Edom, who is described in the last verse. In that verse, our salvation from Edom is written in future tense, as a prayer.

It may instead refer collectively to all 5 exiles described in the song, of which Edom is the last. After our final redemption, we will dedicate the 3rd beit hamikdash.

I don't think it refers to each exile individually, since it would take a little bit of gymnastics to explain how we dedicated the mizbeach after both Bavel and Persia.

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Indeed Rav Efrayim Greenblatt includes a running explanation of the song in siman 170 of Riv'vos Efrayim by someone named Nechemya Nusbecher, in which he says that that line is a reference to a verse in Y'shayahu (35:6) about Edom. –  WAF Dec 9 '12 at 23:06
    
@WAF, cf. judaism.stackexchange.com/a/12400. –  msh210 Dec 10 '12 at 4:25
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