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Groups of Jews not from shevet Levi would work in the bes hamikdash, a week at a time. Their primary responsibility was attendance: being present when korb'nos tzibur, public offerings, were brought. (Source: e.g., commentaries to Taanis 2:7.)

Non-kohanim from shevet Levi ("l'viyim") also worked in the bes hamikdash. Among other things, they kept watch overnight and sang.

What did these people eat?

For example, did they go twice a day (or so) into Jerusalem to buy food? Did they brown-bag (so to speak)? from home? from a daily or every-other-day trip to Jerusalem? Did they buy food off of the gizbar (treasurer) of the bes hamikdash?[1] Was there perhaps a canteen on the har habayis? Or what? In short, what did they eat?

[1] Note that the bes hamikdash owned flour and, IIRC, birds that people could buy and use as offerings.

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Can you support your premise with a source? – Seth J Oct 4 '12 at 4:28
@SethJ It's somewhere in mishnayos Shkalim – b a Oct 4 '12 at 5:20
As always, indicating the source of your assumptions for your premise makes for a stronger question. – Seth J Oct 4 '12 at 5:37
@SethJ, true, good point; thanks. I've added in most of them: I can't think at the moment where a source for my footnote is. – msh210 Oct 4 '12 at 6:38

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