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Based on the implication that Yehuda got married after Yosef was sold, and that it was 22 years later that Yaacov and the family come down to Egypt, during that time Yehuda has his 3 children by the daughter of Shua, marries two of them to Tamar, they both die, keeps Shelah from her so that he can grow up, then has two children by her.

How old were Er and Onan when they died?

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According to Seder Hadoros (Year 2217) Er and Onan were seven or eight years old when they married Tamar. I'd assume they died quite soon after.

However see Ibn Ezra to Breishis 38:1 who states that it was not possible to procreate until age twelve. He reconciles the 22 years by explaining that "At that time" could mean before the sale of Yosef. (Thanks @Fred)

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How could Onan possibly die before puberty? –  Aryeh Sep 27 '12 at 11:42
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@Aryeh The Seder Hadoros in the link I provided writes that at that time boys reached puberty at age eight. –  Michoel Sep 27 '12 at 13:34
    
The Ibn Ezra explicitly disagrees with this opinion (Commentary to B'reishis, 38:1). I'd venture that his opinion is worthy of inclusion in your answer. –  Fred Sep 27 '12 at 19:13
    
+1, (15 chars). –  Fred Sep 28 '12 at 2:14
    
Thank you but that raises as many questions. How could they be punished at the age of 8 or 12? Even according to the Ibn Ezra I am not sure there are enough years for it all to have taken place, unless Yehuda got married before they even came back to Canaan. –  Mord Yisroel Sep 28 '12 at 9:24
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