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I borrowed (with permission) a question from Ahmed Han, which is:

People of every religion claim that they are the ones in the right path. Even the people of sects in these religions think that they are on a better path than the peoples of other sects are on. How come could they be so sure?

As a Muslim, how can I be sure that my religion or sect/madhab/path is the rightful one? How can I be sure that there isn't any other religion sent by Allah which is better than Islam, but it is wrongly advertised so that I think that it is wrong?

Change some words and we get:

People of every religion claim that they are the ones in the right path. Even the people of sects in these religions think that they are on a better path than the peoples of other sects are on.

As a someone who believes in Judaism, how can you be sure that the religion is the rightful one? How can I be sure that there isn't any other religion sent by God which is better than Judaism, but it is wrongly advertised so that I think that it is wrong?

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Here are some good places to start: - Kuzari (a sefer - translated into English - that discusses Judaism vs Christianity, Islam, and Aristotelianism) - Bachya ibn Pekuda wrote Chovos Halevovos (Duties of the Heart - also translated into English) – pzkd Aug 21 '12 at 19:35
+1. Looks like you were right, though. Also, extremely related: judaism.stackexchange.com/questions/13764/… – HodofHod Aug 21 '12 at 19:45
I get asked this question a lot and I find that he simplest answer is to say "Judaism is only the right path for you if you are Jewish." There might be religions sent by god which are better, but are not for you because he made you as a Jew. That's it -- no competition, just parallel paths. Yes, there are implications and consequences which are problematic, but the underlying approach resolves the question. God wants you to be who you are, not someone else. – Danno Aug 21 '12 at 22:43
Nice answer/comment Dan. It's similar to my personal belief system. Maybe you want to make that an answer instead of a comment. – user1550 Aug 21 '12 at 23:03
@Danno, that may end the conversation but it doesn't resolve anything. It merely begs the question. – Yirmeyahu Jul 4 '13 at 15:46
up vote 8 down vote accepted

Rabbi Kelemen’s book Permission to Receive is essential reading and provides four rational approaches to the Torah’s Divine origin. I can’t summarise it here.

The best evidence is our Mesorah – the tradition of transmission of the Torah.

The link site also has articles on our history with the critical paragraph:

On the fiftieth day after they began counting the Omer--that is, fifty-one days after the Exodus, all of the Children of Israel, men, women and children, over two million people, stood at Mount Sinai and received the Torah amidst great miracles and heavenly fire. They saw no form or picture of G-d, but they saw many miracles that proved that G-d is the Creator of heaven and earth. They heard G-d's voice speak and command Moses to instruct the Children of Israel on how to prepare to receive the Torah. Then they heard G-d speaking directly to them, the Children of Israel, and commanding them to keep the Torah. The Children of Israel accepted the Torah and all its Commandments, and they said: "We agree to obey, even before we hear the actual Commandments."

The article that establishes the age of the Torah is also worth looking at.

We have had the Torah for at least 3,313 years, when Hashem gave it to us at Mount Sinai.

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The quoted paragraph is the main point. You won't find another religion making the same claim, because it is impossible to fake, and almost impossible to imagine faking, unlike a revelation to an individual, or small group. – Yishai Aug 21 '12 at 21:47
@Yishai But it is very possible that the number started smaller, and grew zeros on the end of it as time progressed. – Double AA Aug 21 '12 at 23:49
@DoubleAA, not really, as it represented the progeny of the original ones. People would have to accept a third party telling them a story they never heard from their parents, and that their parents actively deny hearing about (especially in the more hierarchical societies of the past). But I stand by my main point: The testable hypothesis is finding another competing claim with the same characteristic. It doesn't exist (to my knowledge). – Yishai Aug 22 '12 at 2:26
@yisai Yes really. There need not be third party; it would be organic. Imagine at first it was 60 people. By the time their grandchildren tell the great-grandchildren they say "'There were a lot of people.' 'How many, Dad?' 'Like a 100.'" Soon a hundred becomes hundreds becomes a thousand etc. We're talking about a shift over many many generations with no written record. It's not at all unfathomable that the number grew, especially when doing so increases the glory of the Revelation (parallel to Midrashim which talk about {some really large number} of enemies that Hero-Jew killed in one shot). – Double AA Aug 22 '12 at 2:37
Even better it's parallel to the increase in number of plagues that were at Yam Suf found in the Midrashim quoted at the Seder. You can't say those Midrashim are not well-intentioned, but you could imagine how they may be misconstrued as some sort of pure fact over hundreds of years of oral transmission. – Double AA Aug 22 '12 at 2:39

some other indications of the authenticity of the torah.

  1. the laws of shmita (Parsha Behar) (every seven years everyone in israel must stop working the land for the whole year. God promises to provide a bumper crop prior to the Shmita year to sustain the Jewish people). furthermore, in the yovel year this would be two consecutive years where noone planted anything. What human in his right mind would fabricate such a claim and risk mass starvation? (if this were agricultural reasons, it would not be necessary to stop all the land simultaneously and it would be crazy to promise a bumper crop after six straight years of harvesting the land. Usually the opposite happens after 6 straight years.)

  2. 3 times a year, every year, during the temple era, all Jewish males are commanded to leave their homes and go to Jerusalem for the festivals. God promised: "Nobody will desire your land while you are going up to see the face of the Lord your God three times in the year." (Ex 34:24) Who else could make such a claim but God? No human being in his right mind would enact such a law, leaving his army vulnerable to being encircled and easily defeated. Turns out it proved true that no foreign nation ever came up to take the land of the Jews during their festivals prior to the destruction of Jerusalem 400+ years later.

  3. Kosher. The torah informs us that there is only one animal that has split hooves and does not chew its cud - the pig. Who else but God could claim this? (see this link for more on this: http://www.aish.com/jl/b/bb/104491254.html )

  4. "all fish with scales have moving fins" - who else but God can claim this. (see above link). (some invoke the "sea snake" or "sea eel" as a "refutation" but these scales are embedded in the skin unlike normal fish which are armor-like and come off without peeling off the skin. the hebrew word for scales "kaskasim" is the same as for armor. see: this or this)

  5. The torah's prophecies of the return of the Jews to Israel. (can a nation exiled from its homeland and splintered into a dozen minor ethnic groups for 2,000 years, have the ability and resolve to return en masse to their homeland and become a universally recognized world power?)

  6. Miraculous victories of the israeli army in the early wars (see for example: http://www.chabad.org/multimedia/timeline_cdo/aid/525341/jewish/Introduction.htm or http://www.benmelech.org/z-def/english/israel-bailey.htm) Even Ben Gurion who was a secular Jew is quoted as saying: "In Israel, in order to be a realist you must believe in miracles".

  7. The Tzadikim - those who have had the merit and opportunity of meeting with the Tzadikim (righteous sages) of the generation know that even today, we can find shadows of "prophecy".

  8. the infinite wisdom/depth of the Torah, which is evident to all who study it in depth.

  9. The uniqueness of the hebrew language. There is something much more to it than plain convention as explained here. see also DNA of creation by Rabbi Becher here or the book "Letters of Fire" by Rabbi Matityahu Glazerson

  10. Jews don't go around trying to convert nonjews. on the contrary, they try to discourage potential converts, that it will be too much for them to take on. This is due to confidence in the pact of God with Abraham that Judaism will never disappear as explained here. We see its effects today, as Mark Twain wondered: "The Jew saw them all, survived them all, and is now what he always was, exhibiting no decadence, no infirmaties, of age, no weakening of his parts, no slowing of his energies, no dulling of his alert but aggressive mind. All things are mortal but the Jews; all other forces pass, but he remains. What is the secret of his immortality?"

  11. The uniqueness of the Jewish people, in terms of cultural survival as explained in this lecture by Rabbi Mordechai Becher. This indicates a special providence on the Jews more than any other nations as explained there. We also find a uniqueness around the jewish people in terms of intellectual abilities. They have received an extremely disproportionate number of nobel prizes. This indicates "something" unique about the Jews.

  12. Antisemitism - The Talmud (Tractate Shabbos 69) cites the source of anti-Semitism using a play on words: The Torah - the source of the Jewish system of laws, values and moral standards - was received at Mount Sinai. The Hebrew pronunciation of "Sinai" is almost identical to the Hebrew word for "hatred" - sinah. "Why was the Torah given on a mountain called Sinai?" asks the Talmud. "Because the great sinah - the tremendous hatred aimed at the Jew - emanates from Sinai." I think we can confirm the existence of this irrational hatred throughout history. Even today, the UN passes more resolutions against Israel than pretty much the entire world combined. Some Jews have tried to cure this hatred by abandoning the torah and becoming like the nations but history shows it has resulted in the opposite effect, as predicted in the verse (Ezekiel 20) "When you say, 'Let us be like the nations, like the peoples of other countries...' As I live says the Lord GOD - I will rule over you with a strong hand, an outstretched arm, and outpoured wrath".

  13. The special providence given to those who truly dedicate themselves to torah study. The Vilna Gaon for example reportedly achieved superhuman levels of torah wisdom as explained here and here. More recently, it is reported in the book "HaSod" by (Y. Hershkowitz) about Rabbi Yosef Shalom Elyashiv that his grasp of the entire spectrum of torah depth was miraculous. He was able to answer the most complicated halachic questions instantly, even those intertwined in multiple complex sections in the talmud over many tractates. Many times the head judge of the Rabbinical Court in Jerusalem was asked to rule on such complicated questions. He would answer: I can research this and give you an answer in several days, or you can go to Rabbi Elyashiv and get a fully reliable answer instantly.

  14. The uniquenes of the torah. It has been translated in more languages than any other book. This indicates a special providence.

  15. Judaism is the mother of all monotheist religions. Scientific inquiry supports the idea that the world functions through a unifying force as explained in this lecture by Rabbi Mordechai Becher. This is an indication that if the universe is run by the divine then there is only one Divinity.

Two more points brought by Rabbi Yaakov Emden (200 years ago, quoted in Masoret Yisrael edition of Chovos Halevavos end of gate 10):

The sign of the truth of these things are from two faithful, visible, witnesses:

One, our situation and survival in this long exile, which the Creator fulfilled His promise: "But despite all this, while they are in the land of their enemies, I will not despise them nor will I reject them to annihilate them, thereby breaking My covenant that is with them, for I am the L-ord their G-d" (Vayikra 26:44)...

Two, the matter of our land, because from the day we went out of it, no nation was able to dwell in it, it was like a woman who's husband went on a faraway trip, and she waits for him, and the verse "I will make the Land desolate, so that it will become desolate [also] of your enemies who live in it" (Vayikra 26:32), tells us it is guarded for us...all this are clear signs that our hope is not lost and G-d's love has not left us, and on this eternal love is based Shir Hashirim, and just like G-d loves us a strong love, "Torrents of water are not able to extinguish the love" (Shir Hashirim 8:7), so too it is our duty to show our powerful and complete love, like "As water reflects a face back to a face, so one's heart is reflected back to him by another" Mishlei 27:19)

Rabbi Matityahu Solomon, the mashgiach of the Lakewood Yeshiva in New Jersey also brings down a different version of Rabbi Emden's argument in his commentary to the Shaar Bechina ch.5:

We do not need to contemplate on the great miracles of the Exodus, in order to examine and demonstrate G-d's goodness and infinite power. For behold, we have a faithful witness which cannot be denied - our survival during this exile among the nations. It is proper to quote the holy words of Rabbi Yaakov Emden (sidur beit kel):

"Who is so blind as to not see the divine providence below, that His eyes are on them always. How could the denier of providence not be ashamed and stand disgraced? He who examines our unique situation and standing in the world. We the exiled nation, a dispersed sheep. After all the troubles and shifts for two thousands years. No nation in the world is as pursued as us. How great have been our troubles! How powerful have been those who lifted their heads against us from our earliest beginnings - to exterminate us, root us out, and eradicate us, due to their intense hatred which stems from jealousy. They have brought on us great sufferings but were never able to triumph over us, to eliminate us and destroy us. All these ancient, powerful nations - have gone by, their strength has withered, their protection has eroded - but we who cling to G-d are all alive today (Deut. 4:4). We have not lost in this long, intense exile even a single letter or vowel of the written Torah. The words of the Sages (oral law) endured. The hand of time did not prevail over us, they were not able to prevail over us. What will the sharp philosopher answer to this? Can the hand of chance do all this? I swear by my soul, for when contemplating these things, they are greater in my eyes than all the great open miracles G-d has performed for our forefathers in Egypt, the Sinai Desert, and in the land of Israel. (the author wrote that the miracle of our survival in this exile is equal to the miracles of Egypt, but Rabbi Yaakov Emden holds that it is an even greater miracle) The longer the exile, the more the miracle is confirmed, and G-d's strength and power becomes apparent. For the prophets already saw the exile's intensity, complaining and moaning on its amazing protracted length before it happened. Behold, none of their words fell to the ground (failed to happen)..." End quote

(Rabbi Solomon continues) As Moshe Rabeinu told us from the outset that such and such as trouble would befall us, and thus it happened. Likewise, for all of our exile - the prophets already predicted what will happen. For all the persecutions and pursuits that befell us, such as the holocaust, it is all spelled out in the verses of the Torah which speak on those times... Can we not see these things with our own eyes?! Behold, only by examining and contemplating is it possible to see them. Without contemplating them, we remain totally blind.

for yet more points I put together see here

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1,2 are less crazy than many other things pagans were talking about back then. 4 has been disproven. 8 seems circular. – Double AA Jul 4 '13 at 8:15
7 is equally an argument for those who have had the "merit" of meeting scam artists of any faith. – mevaqesh Dec 11 '15 at 0:45
9 seems ridiculous. Tremendous claims require tremendous evidence. Not a link. Even if it were true, how would it prove Judaism? – mevaqesh Dec 11 '15 at 0:48
10 seems irrelevant. THey dont try to convert others. THerefore they are the true religion...? – mevaqesh Dec 11 '15 at 0:49
How is 12 relevant? – mevaqesh Dec 11 '15 at 0:51

From the very fact that there are so many heated disagreements between Jewish groups, and even within each group there are disagreements, yet they all concur on the essential beliefs in Judaism it must be true.

For example, (besides believing in תורה מסיני and in Moshe Rabeinu and things like that) there is no group within Jews who use less than 10 men for a Minyan; There is no group that does not make Kiddush on Shabbos (except if it's Yom Kippur); A big one is, the fact that even though the Torah says about the month of Nissan החודש הזה לכם ראש חדשים and there is a disagreement (between R. Eliezer and R. Yehoshua) if the world was created in Nissan or in Tishrei, yet you will not find a Jew who will tell you that Rosh Hashannah is the first day of Nissan!

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But the first of Nissan is a rosh hashana! – Double AA Aug 11 '13 at 7:57
@Double AA I'm glad you found something to say. – Meir Zirkind Aug 11 '13 at 16:25
????????????????? – Double AA Aug 12 '13 at 0:26
Well this argument is dependent on semantics because if a group differed sufficiently, you would say they do not count. – mevaqesh Dec 11 '15 at 0:56

Rabi Umori, Harav Yosef Mizrahi has a three part lecture called Torah and Science where he proves with irrefutable proofs that the Torah is Divine and that Islam and Christianity are nonsense. It is around four hours but it 100% worth it in my opinion for Hizuk and evidence.

Here are a few from Harav Mizrahi (and possibly other sources):

  • The Talmud states (Berachoth 32b) the following “Said to her the Holy One, Blessed is He, my daughter, twelve Mazaloth I have created in the sky, and for Mazal I have created thirty Chil and for each of the Chil I have created thirty Legions, and for each Legion I have created thirty Rahaton and for each Rahaton I have created thirty Karaton and for each Karaton I have created Gastra and for each Gastra I have attached 365,000’s of 10,000 of starts, corresponding to the days of the solar year, and all of them I have created only for your sake.” The total number of starts in the universe is 1018 or 1,064,340,000,000,000,000,000. According to the Arizona State University, the number of stars in the world is about 10⑱. Interestingly enough, the Talmud was written over 1700 years ago, while the gentiles in the world presumed there were about 4000-8000 stars (see Raziel HaMalach pg. 54).
  • According to Chochise College: “They theory of Pangea is that millions of years ago all the continents were joined together in one enormous land mass known as Pangea.” The super-commentary on the Bible, the Iben Ezra writes (Genesis 1:2) in accordance with this statement. He writes quote “First G-d created one continent, but then split into seven continents. The Iben Ezra lived from 1089-1164. Iben Ezra lived before Australia, Antarctica, and America were discovered. Until recent years this was not known to gentiles, however since our sages have divine assistance in all their works, they receive knowledge that is not known to the regular man. Thus revealing the knowledge that G-d has before all others.
  • The prophet Jeremiah writes (Jeremiah 50:9) “For, behold, I will stir up and cause to come up against Babylon an assembly of great nations from the north country; and they shall set themselves in array against her, from thence she shall be taken; their arrows shall be as of a mighty man that make childless; none shall return in vain.” The essential commentary, the Malbim writes 200 years ago “The arrows strong as is smart; the enemy’s arrows will be like they have a ‘brain’ and they will take themselves to their destination.” Jeremiah, over 2500 years ago knew about the Gulf War, and the Malbim knew about the missiles that control their own path.
  • Due to our advanced knowledge of science, today we have learned that when the snake sheds its’ skin it feels excruciating pain. We only received this knowledge merely 50 years ago. However, the Bible knew of this 3320 years ago. The verse reads (Genesis 2:14) “And the Lord God said to the serpent, ‘Because you have done this, cursed be you more than all the cattle and more than all the beasts of the field...’” Meaning the Torah knew of the pain that the snake was feeling much before modern science discovered it.
  • The Talmud (Nidah 6:9) states “Everything in the ocean that has scales must have fins.” Keep in mind, this text was written over 1800 years ago. The text is almost saying that they have searched through the millions of species of animals in the ocean and never saw a fish that has scales and not fins. The only possible way that that Rabbi could have known this is 2000 years ago, is if they either went to the depths of the ocean (without submarines or special technology) and studied every living creature beneath the water (something that even scientists today haven’t even completed yet), or they had recieved it through tradition from Mt. Sinai.
  • Scientists today have learned that water does exist in the cosmos. However, our Torah knew about this many thousands of years of years ago. The verse states (Genesis 1:7) “And created the firmament; and He separated between the waters beneath the firmament and between the waters that are above the firmament.”
  • The Torah states (Deuteronomy 28:36) “And you shall serve other gods of wood and stone...” As mentioned many times the Torah is over 3300 years old in its revelation. Thus it shouldn’t have known about Christianity 1300 years prior to its beginning or about Islam 2000 years before it began. However, it did because as we know Christians worship the cross, and Muslims worship wood (Mecca), and Vilna Goan (Adereth Eliyahu) explains this verse in this way. Hence, the Torah knew about them many years before they even began.

And many, many more...

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Are these supposed to be irrefutable? – Double AA Jul 4 '13 at 20:26
@DoubleAA I didn't do them justice the way I wrote them (no sources, and lack of explanation). – Hacham Gabriel Jul 4 '13 at 23:39
Don't blame yourself. Some are clearly not fixable. Like quoting the Malbim's explanation of a 16th century non-Jew's misprint of Tanach? That's just useless from the outset. – Double AA Jul 5 '13 at 6:20
@HachamGabriel What's the actual Hebrew for the Ibn Ezra? (I can't verify it myself but it sounds like some Kaballistic talk about 7 worlds or something.) Also I'd point out that, firstly, Eurasia is one landmass (Eurpoe and Asia as separate is just a cultural construct). And secondly, there are much more than 7 tectonic plates. – A L Jul 15 '13 at 23:53
"‘Because you have done this, cursed be you more than all the cattle and more than all the beasts of the field...’” Meaning the Torah knew of the pain that the snake was feeling much before modern science discovered it." I have no idea how one follows the other. – mevaqesh Dec 11 '15 at 1:00

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