How can we say in Al Hamichyah ונאכל מפריה (eat of its fruit) after ובנה ירשלים (and you will rebuild Jerusalem) You are not allowed to grow trees in ירשלים?
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The Griz answers with another question.
Where is the Halacha that you have to eat בקדושה ובטהרה (in purity)?
The question is the answer the fruit referred to in ונאכל מפריה must be talking about מעשר שני Masser Sheni which Halachicly must be eaten in Yerushalayim (NOT GROWN) so ונאכל מפריה is talking about מעשר שני and the Halacha is it must be eaten בקדושה ובטהרה.
חידושי מרן הגריז החדשות אות-סב
Perhaps indeed because of these two questions (the one in the original post and in YS' answer), Nusach Ari omits this phrase; the wording there is ובנה ירושלים... והעלנו לתוכה, ושמחנו בה, ונברכך בקדושה ובטהרה.
The Brisker Rov says this is a reference to Maaser Sheni; while usually grown outside of Jerusalem, it's eaten in Jerusalem.
(What's this law about no trees anywhere in Jerusalem? I thought it was just the Temple Mount.)
This also explains the next phrase: "and we shall consume of them in holiness and purity." While purity preceeds holiness in our spiritual endeavors (look at the chapter ordering in Mesilas Yesharim), here it's the fruit that's holy, and we have to eat it while pure. (Kedusha is on the cheftza; tahara is on the gavra.)
I think the simplest answer is to rethink the structure of the bracha:
What's it? Jerusalem? Or the entire land? Depends how you read it. We talk about gathering the exiles back to the land, but not necessarily that everyone will move only to Jerusalem for year-round residence. On the other hand, we usually talk about rebuilding Jerusalem, not the whole land. But if you read it as the whole land, the above question is moot.
It could be referring to fruit trees that are already there, without people planting them. Or, trees planted outside Yerushalayim...