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The Gemara in Berachos 12a says that we bow at Baruch and we straighten at Hashem. Nowadays the familiar practice is to bend the knee at Baruch, to bow at Atah, and to straighten at Hashem, as stated in Magen Avraham 113:4. Why did the practice change, and when?

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I'm pretty sure it's a Zohar change. – Double AA Aug 14 '12 at 7:06
related judaism.stackexchange.com/q/9285/759 – Double AA Aug 14 '12 at 21:49
Im not sure when it cahnged but the bowing in the Talmud is diffrent then the bowing most people do now a days. as the RaMBaM explains in Hilkhoth tephila 5:10 you fall on your knees and bow to the floor in Braukh in one motion then then stand up at HaShem, so when the practice was changed in ashkinaz it also made the relation to gemara more awkward. But you are looking at no where earlier then 1204. – Qoheleth Aug 15 '12 at 2:02

Can't say for sure when it was introduced, but as Double AA commented it's [already] mentioned in the Zohar in פרשת עקב on דף רע''א ע''ב:

בָּרוּךְ דִּצְלוֹתָא, בַּר נָשׁ כּוֹרֵעַ בֵּיהּ בְּבִרְכּוֹי, וְגָחִין רֵישָׁא בְּאַתָּה, בְּגִין דְּאַתָּה אִקְרֵי רֹאשׁ. וְעַל דָּא כֹּהֵן נָטִיל בָּרֹאשׁ, וְאִיהוּ רֹאשׁ תָּדִיר. וּבְּגִין כָּךְ כְּרִיעָה בְּבָרוּך. וְגָחִינוּ דְּרֵישָׁא בְּאַתָּה.‏

Which translates to:

בַּבָּרוּךְ שֶׁל הַתְּפִלָּה אָדָם כּוֹרֵעַ בְּבִרְכָּיו, וְגוֹחֵן רֹאשׁוֹ בְּאַתָּה, מִשּׁוּם שֶׁאַתָּה נִקְרָא רֹאשׁ. וְעַל זֶה כֹּהֵן לוֹקֵחַ בָּרֹאשׁ, וְהוּא תָּמִיד רֹאשׁ. וְלָכֵן כְּרִיעָה בְּבָרוּךְ, וּגְחִינַת הָרֹאשׁ בְּאַתָּה.‏

At Baruch one bends one's knees, and bows at Ata, etc.

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