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I always wonder what people refer to when they quote things spoken between the Jews and the Romans. Does ancient Jewish doctrine include instances of dialogue between the Jews and the Romans?

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Sorry, I'm sure it's a language issue, but I don't understand what you mean here. Do you want to know what Jewish tradition says about Romans? About the Roman Empire? About the Roman people? About Italians? (so... post 18th century?) About the government of Italy? –  Charles Koppelman Aug 9 '12 at 18:19
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I also am not sure what is being asked here? –  Gershon Gold Aug 9 '12 at 18:35
    
As the other commenters have pointed out, this question is very unclear. I've closed it as a temporary measure to allow you to clarify your intent. Please ping me in a comment here (by typing @msh210) when it's cleaned up and I'll be glad to reopen it. –  msh210 Aug 9 '12 at 18:45
    
@msh210 I think I know what he's asking, but the English is poor. How's this edit? –  Dov F Aug 9 '12 at 22:04
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@DovF - Wonderful, thank you –  Victor Aug 9 '12 at 22:17
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There are various instances of dialogue between the Jewish sages and the Roman philosophers in the Talmud. One such instance is the Mishna in Avodah Zarah (54b) and the ensuing Talmudic passage. One discussion recorded there goes as follows:

שאלו פלוסופין את הזקנים ברומי: אם אלהיכם אין רצונו בעבודת כוכבים מפני מה אינו מבטלה? אמרו להם: אילו לדבר שאין העולם צורך לו היו עובדין, הרי הוא מבטלה. הרי הן עובדין לחמה וללבנה ולכוכבים ולמזלות! יאבד עולם מפני השוטים?! אלא עולם כמנהגו נוהג, ושוטים שקלקלו עתידין ליתן את הדין. דבר אחר: הרי שגזל סאה של חטים [והלך] וזרעה בקרקע, דין הוא שלא תצמח! אלא עולם כמנהגו, נוהג והולך ושוטים שקלקלו עתידין ליתן את הדין. דבר אחר: הרי שבא על אשת חבירו, דין הוא שלא תתעבר! אלא עולם כמנהגו נוהג והולך, ושוטים שקלקלו עתידין ליתן את הדין.

Philosophers asked the elders in Rome, “If your God has no desire for idolatry, why does he not abolish it?” They replied, “If it were something which the world has no need for that was worshipped, he would abolish it; but people worship the sun, moon, stars and planets; should he destroy the universe on account of fools?! Rather the world runs its natural course, and as for the fools who act wrongly, they will ultimately have to render an accounting. Another illustration: Suppose a man stole a measure of wheat and went and sowed it in the ground; it would make sense that it should not grow! But the world runs its natural course, and as for the fools who act wrongly, they will ultimately have to render an accounting. Another illustration: Suppose a man has intercourse with his neighbor’s wife; it would makes sense that she should not conceive! But the world runs its natural course, and as for the fools who act wrongly, they will ultimately have to render an accounting.”

I attempted an explanation of this passage here.

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great example, thank you –  Victor Aug 9 '12 at 22:38
    
@Victor Anytime, thanks. –  Dov F Aug 9 '12 at 22:40
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