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Why do Nusahos Ari, Sefard, Edot HaMizrah, and Ashkenaz of Eretz Yisrael repeat the order of the kitores (incense offering) at the end of Shaharis every day and why does Nusah Ashkenaz of Hutz LaAretz repeat it on Shabbasos and Yamim Tovim?

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I can't answer for the minhag of Ashkenazim Hutz L'Aretz. However, the reason that it is brought at the end of Davening "again" has deep Kabbalistic significance. According the Arizal and the RaShaSh, when we say pitum Ketoret and Korbanot at the beginning of davening, it is to draw down spiritual light in order to be able to lift our selves(and the world around us ect.) to the next spritual level(from Asiyah to Yetzirah). At the end of davening however it is to draw down spiritual sustenance to ourselves(and the world around us) for the rest of the day(from Yetzira to Asiyah). See the siddur HaRaShaSh and Sha'ar HaKavvnot Drushei Tefillat Shaharit Drush 3 starting on 12b.

As far as Ashkenazim Hutz L'Aretz... I can only hazard a guess. However siddur HaPardes(which is a Kabbalistic siddur arranged by one of the students of the Gra) does do it.

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Wasn't the Gr"a among those who avoided saying it at all because of the חשש of חיסר אחת חייב מיתה? –  WAF Dec 19 '10 at 17:09
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I had never heard that. I suppose that it is a possibility, however, given the Gr"a's knowledge of Kabballah, I have reason to doubt it. I would have to see it inside a serious source. –  Rabbi Michael Tzadok Dec 19 '10 at 17:17
    
Abudarham is the source quoted as being concerned for that. I never saw that this was a concern of the GR"A. –  Yahu Jan 12 '11 at 6:15
    
@WAF I was under the impression that "chiseir" is Chayav Misa only when the Kohen Gadol comes into the Kodesh Hakodashim on Yom Kippur –  Shmuel Brin Jun 12 '12 at 18:13
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If I recall from Rabbi Artscroll, the initial ketores (before psukei d'zimra) is part of the recitation of the other sacrifices, which our prayers fill in for.

The additional reciting the order of ketores is auspicious for financial health, just as in the Temple, the Cohen offering it would be blessed with wealth.

A Chutz-la'aretz Ashkenazi like me, however, tends to be in a rush on weekdays. If someone omitted an ingredient from the ketores, that could incur Heavenly death; so it's considered very, very dangerous to recite the paragraph if you might skip words. Hence, save it for the more leisurely days.

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The question was "Why it is repeated at the end of davening if it already was said (or should've been said) in the seder hakorbanos at the beginning of the davening?" You just gave a reason a segula if one says it. How does that explain the repetition? –  Yahu Jun 15 '10 at 19:04
    
Once as part of korbanos, once for the segulah. –  Shalom Jun 15 '10 at 19:19
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Fine, is a segulah a reason to add something to the seder Hatefilah? Was it added and if so when and by whom and if not then why did just bnei ashkenaz take it out based on a concern of a sefardic authority (Abudarham) that one is "chayav misa bidei shomayim" if he leaves out saying one of the ingredients????? I am just left with questions. –  Yahu Jun 16 '10 at 18:29
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