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Tosafoth were the sons-in-law, grandchildren, and students of Rashi (and their students), and "they" wrote a commentary on the Talmud that is often at odds with Rashi's earlier commentary. Sometimes there are internal disagreements within a single commentary on the passage of Talmud being discussed. Who is the redactor of the various opinions expressed in the commentary of Tosafoth?

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I'm pretty sure it depends which masechet, but often it's the later tosafists such as Maharam and Rosh. –  Double AA Jun 27 '12 at 19:13
    
Actually, most of the tractates that can be identified are the redaction of the school at Touques, headed by Rabbi Eliezer. They're based mainly upon the schools of Evreux and Sens, the latter being both a revision of and an addition to the Tosafot of the Ri haZaken ("Tosafot Yeshenim"). This is the reason why Rabbeinu Tam and the Ri feature so prominently, even in those tractates that owe their origin to different schools. –  Shimon bM Mar 7 '13 at 12:03
    
Related: judaism.stackexchange.com/q/33705 –  msh210 Dec 4 '13 at 7:39

4 Answers 4

There is a sefer by Efraim Urbach called "Ba'alei HaTosafot" (in Hebrew) that discusses them and analyzes, Masechta by Masechta, who the anonymous authors might be.

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Administrative note: This answer was posted to another question and merged hither. –  msh210 Jul 5 '12 at 2:05

Usually the Tosfot commentary for a particular masechet was compiled by a particular Tosafist. Based on clues ranging from outright self identification to alignment of particular shitot, rulings, we can identify a large majority of the authors.

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Administrative note: This answer was posted to another question and merged hither. –  msh210 Jul 5 '12 at 2:05

Wikipedia's article "Tosafot", quoting the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia's:

The edited tosafot owe their existence particularly to Samson of Sens and to the following French tosafists of the thirteenth century: (1) Moses of Évreux, (2) Eliezer of Touques, and (3) Perez ben Elijah of Corbeil.

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there are many different tosafot on each meseches some of the more famous ones are

  1. tosafot harosh
  2. tosafot ri"d
  3. tosafot rabeinu peretz
  4. tosafot tuch (most common alongside gemorah )
  5. tosafot harashb"a meshantz
  6. tosafot rabbeinu moshe

there may be as many as 20 on any given mesechet

when the gemorah was published they printed whatever tosafot was available, and most commonly used, on each mesechet by itself.(this also has alot to do with the fact books were hand-written so most commonly used was usually the most availiable) usually the most well written, concise, and compact on that mesechet was considered best. there are many instances which some meforshim say 2 different tosafists are printed a just few pages from one another. (theres a quite few such instances in the first few pages of pesachim)

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