What defines success in life (in a Jewish outlook)?
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Well, the Gemara Shabbos 31a says that a person will be given the following six-question test after they die; however, this all assumes the person was God-fearing:
So I'd start with those (I know, I'm giving specifics and not generalities).
Achieving greater closeness to G-d - one's own, and that of the wider world (all four of its kingdoms - human, animal, vegetable, and mineral) with which one interacts.
Success in life means after you die the honest Wikipedia page about you will read nicely.
I.e. you have a chelek in olam habah because you added to the meaningful goodness of the world in face of adversity.
People who do not have a chelek in olam habah spoilt their Wikipedia page, they did something more negative than they could compensate for and were unable thereafter to find a place in a meaningful world.