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The Shabas table song "Ki eshm'ra Shabas" includes the following stanza:

רָשׁוּם/רָשַׁם בְּדַת הָאֵ׳ חוֹק אֶל סְגָנָיו בּוֹ לַעֲרוֹךְ לֶחֶם פָּנִים בְּפָנָיו עַל כֵּן לְהִתְעַנּוֹת בּוֹ עַל פִּי נְבוֹנָיו אָסוּר לְבַד מִיּוֹם כִּפּוּר עֲוֺנִי

It is written/He wrote in the law of God a rule for his lieutenants: to set showbread before Him on [Shabas]. Therefore, to fast on [Shabas] is by the decree of His wise ones forbidden: but for Yom Kipur.

In other words, there's a rabbinically-instituted ban on fasting on fast days if their dates happen to fall on Shabas; on Yom Kipur, however, which is Biblically rather rabbinically declared, there's no such ban, and one may [in fact must] fast.

Rabbi Yaakov Emden's sidur explains:

כתוב בתורת ה׳ (ויקרא כד ח) מצוה לכהניו לסדר בשבת לחם הפנים לפניו על השלחן בביהמ״ק ולסלק הלחם המונח משבת העבר ולאכלו בשבת ולכן אסור מד״ס לצום בשבת וכשחל בו יו״כ חובה לצום

Written in God's Torah (Lev. 24:8) is a command to His kohanim to set the showbread on the table before Him on Shabas, and to remove the bread sitting there from the previous week and eat it on Shabas. Therefore, it's forbidden by rabbinical decree to fast on Shabas. But when Yom Kipur falls on [Shabas], there's an obligation to fast.

(Translations are my own, and somewhat loose.)

Two questions:

  1. Why extend the obligation to eat the showbread to a general ban on fasting? What does one have to do with the other?
  2. Is there any source other than this song for saying that the ban on fasting on Shabas is derived from the laws of the showbread? [I've always understood that the ban on fasting on Shabas derives from the rules of oneg Shabas.]
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2  
ShA OC 288 does sound like it's due to oneg, as you say. (from the din of taanit chalom on shabbat having to fast extra on sunday for breaking 'oneg') –  Double AA Jun 10 '12 at 8:07
    
I'm not sure that this commentary is from R. Yaakov Emden, actually; I don't see these zemiros at all in the first edition of his siddur. (The printers of the later editions, published under the name Beis Yaakov, added a lot of material from other sources; in their introduction they list some - but not all - of these. The Eshkol edition distinguishes them by printing all of the additional material in a different typeface; I'd have to look there to see which one they use for this.) –  Alex Jun 11 '12 at 0:40
    
@Alex, ah, good to know: thanks. I found this commentary in a popular modern version of his sidur and assumed it was his. In any event, my question stands according to whoseever commentary it is, even if that's not Rav Yaakov Emden. –  msh210 Jun 11 '12 at 0:43
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1 Answer

There are actually many version of the wording. The correct one seems to be גם להתענות = ALSO fasting....

According to this version there is no connection between the two parts.

http://he.wikisource.org/wiki/%D7%9B%D7%99_%D7%90%D7%A9%D7%9E%D7%A8%D7%94_%D7%A9%D7%91%D7%AA

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2  
But R' Emden doesn't have that version. His explanation moreover clearly indicates a connection between the two things. –  msh210 Jun 10 '12 at 14:32
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...and, besides which, editing into your answer your basis for saying "גם להתענות" is seems to be "[t]he correct" version would much improve your answer's value. –  msh210 Jun 10 '12 at 16:20
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