Sefer Hachinuch 73 says (in my own loose translation, and with emphasis added):
Among the bases for this command [of not eating an animal that was slaughtered and then found to have been close to death] is as follows. The body is a receptacle for the soul; through the body, the soul does its work. Without the body, the soul's work can never be completed. That's why it enters the body: for its own benefit (for God only does good, never bad). The body in the soul's hand is like the tongs in the blacksmith's, with which he makes things.
Now, when the tongs are strong and well-aligned so it can grasp the items, the blacksmith can make good things; otherwise, the items being made will never come out good and nice. Likewise, when the body is missing anything, the intellect suffers accordingly. Therefore, the Torah banned all things that cause the body detriment. Along these lines we can explain simply the Torah prohibition on all forbidden foods; and if there is any among them such that we (and the doctors) don't know the damage they cause, don't be shocked: the Doctor who banned them is wiser. How foolish and confused is he who thinks the only damage in something is that which he comprehends!
Know further that it's for our benefit that the damage in these foods was not revealed to us. For people would then arise who consider themselves very wise and say "oh, that damage? That's only damaging in that climate, or for such people". Lest people be fooled by this, the inherent damage was not revealed to us.