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The Mishnah Berura (51:1) says that the blessing "Baruch She'amar" was instituted by the Anshei K'nesset HagGedola, based on a page that "fell from the sky" (whatever that means).

What is the earliest source for this prayer? Is it brought down in the Gemara?

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Great question. – Adam Mosheh Mar 1 '12 at 7:09
up vote 5 down vote accepted

Here is a great resource which goes over many details about Baruch Sheamar

However, to answer your question directly, no Baruch Sheamar is not in the Gemora. However it is in one of the earliest siddurim that we have, from Rav Amram Hagaon. The bracha was added to our davening during the times of the Geonim, and likely was based on the Hecklaot literature, like most of our prayers are.

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@Vram Many of Hechkalot writings were written before the end of the Talmud. R. Hai Gaon claims they come from the time of the Mishna. I just noticed what you were commenting on, so I corrected myself. – avi Mar 4 '12 at 19:48

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