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The Chumash refers to the months simply as "the first", "the second", and so on. Today we know them by their Babylonian names (Nisan, Iyar ...) Occasionally the Prophets from the First-Temple Era use older Hebrew (?) names, such as "Ziv."

Do we have a complete list of those names for the months?

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1 Answer

In Tanach there are only four:

In a letter from the era of the first Beis Hamikdash found in Arad, there is mention (according to some reconstructions) of ירח צח, "the month Tzach." So it has been proposed that Isaiah 18:4, כחם צח...עלי קציר, is referring to that month (which would mean that it corresponds to Sivan, harvest time).

Other than that, there's the Gezer Calendar, although that just gives agricultural activities for each month rather than names.

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+1 Can you link to somewhere regarding the Arad find? –  Double AA Mar 1 '12 at 5:05
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@DoubleAA: they were published as a book in 1975. I haven't been able to find a complete corpus of the texts online, but this page has a book excerpt that mentions the ירח צח reading. –  Alex Mar 1 '12 at 16:02
    
**הוּא הַחֹדֶשׁ הַשֵּׁנִי, **לִמְלֹךְ שְׁלֹמֹה; not necessarily the second month of the year. –  SLaks Mar 1 '12 at 21:48
    
@SLaks: the Gemara (Rosh Hashanah 2b-3a) points out that Shlomo's, or any other Jewish king's, regnal years begin in Nissan. (And it also adduces II Chron. 3:2, which calls it both "the second month" and "the second" - the assumption being that one refers to his regnal months and the other to the calendrical year.) –  Alex Mar 1 '12 at 22:09
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