Rabbi Aryeh Kaplan has 3 (in my opinion excellent) books on the history, importance, and benefit of Jewish meditation. Yet meditation does not seem to be an integral component for much (though, certainly not all) of orthodox Judaism. It is not taught in schools, not discussed by most rabbanim from the pulpit, and is generally absent from the lives of many Jews. Why is that?
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How do you define Meditation?
In the general non-Chassidic world (and in some Chassidic circles), they don't believe in long "Avodas Hatfilla" and try to hurry through Davening.
Chassidim have been "meditating" for the past 230 years. Before that meditation was limited to those well versed in Kabbalah. Chabad Chassidus alone has literally thousands of pages on how to meditate and what to meditate on.
Outside of Chabad and Breslov Chassidus and Sephardi Mekubalim, meditation isn't popular because to be successful you need to spend almost 2 hours minimum of prayer which the average Torah observant Jew does not feel they have adequate time to achieve.
The Arizal (quoted in Biur Halacha O"H 571) says to do one day a week what Breslov calls today "Hitbodedut".