As a non-Jew, I would like to know the difference between the Mishnah, Gemara and the Talmud. I understand that the Oral Law was not written down until after the destruction of the second temple. That is obviously why it is called the Oral law.
Also what are the oldest recorded written citings of either the Mishnah, the Gemara or the Talmud in other Rabbinic literature?
EDIT: I found answer to part of my question at the meta link provided by Jake below:
גמרא - gemara — The body of talmudic analysis of and commentary to the Mishna, found in the Babylonian Talmud and Jerusalem Tamud.
משנה — mishna —
- a body of law compiled circa 200 CE (circa 4000 anno mundi).
- a paragraph in that work. plural: משניות — mishnayot, mishnayos
I'd still like an answer to the second part of my question (and more explanation to the EDIT part above, if I have missed something or the information above is not correct).