Why is that when you wake up you put on a Tallit Katan and then you go to shul and put on a Tallit Gadol? How is it that you can say two different brachot? If it is in fact, that each peice of clothing gets the the chance for a new bracha, are there any other mitzvot, aside from food, where we recite a bracha each and every time we do the SAME action? Of those allowed are there any we commonly do multiple time as we do with the Tallit?
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The custom among (as far as I know all) Ashk'nazim (and maybe among others also?) is that someone who dons a talis katan in the morning intending to don a talis gadol later (for prayers) does not say a b'racha on the former. However, I have no citation for this: I'm not seeing it in the Mishna B'rura, and certain parts of Shulchan Aruch Orach Chayim 8 seem to directly contradict it (cf. Double AA's answer).
Update: As Shalom mentions in a comment on this answer, MB 8:24 cites with approval the practice I am familiar with.
Each individual four-cornered piece of clothing is independently obligated in tzitzit and gets its own bracha. See Shulchan Aruch OC 8:12,13