I recall reading that their is a pesak/teshuvah/report by a major posek, perhaps an early "later" Acharon, (Rabbi Akiva Eiger zt"l) which noted that at least elementary arithmatic or mathematics was traditionally taught in cheder. I did not make note of the makor, however. Is anyone able to provide the source?
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Not sure these quotes exactly answer your question, however they do show some of the major times when math was taught and introduced into Jewish schools. The last one seems particularly on topic.
It was published in 1906, and reads: "On the 31st March 1805 members of the High German Jewish community in Altona formed an association with the purpose of establishing a school for Jewish boys, with lessons in religion, Hebrew, arithmetic and writing.
Yaskil Avdi (vol. 1 Orah Haim siman 7) permits it (he was asked by Rabbi Masliah Mazuz). As well as Sis Eliezer (vol. 9 siman 15). See the aforementioned Yabia Omer 7:21.
I found in Yalkut Yosef vol. 2 pg. 255
He prohibits lectures about non-Torah things in a Shul except for Kiruv and Hizuk.
Sefer Sheeris HaNachala mentions in the name of the Sefer HaItim that Rav Hai Gaon said that it is permitted to teach children Arabic and mathematics in order to assist them in learning Torah.