Is it okay at Christmastime to give a gift to a boss or for kids to give gifts to teachers if they are not Jewish?
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I'm not so sure it's as straightforward as follick said. True that Christianity is avodah zarah for us Jews; true also that it is, according to some posekim, also the same for non-Jews. Nevertheless, one of the major leniencies in this regard (alluded to by Shalom in his answer to the related question) is that most non-Jews nowadays aren't אדוק באמונתם, so "frum" that, say, receiving a gift before their holiday will make them run to church to thank their deity.
There still is the issue of chukos hagoyim (imitating non-Jewish practices), though.
On a practical level: maybe indeed it's too late for this year to do anything about it, but how about if you give them an end-of-year present (or whatever you want to call it) far enough in advance - say anytime before Thanksgiving - so that it doesn't have a direct connection to Christmas, but still shows your regard for them?
I found something else that bears on this. The Rema (Yoreh De'ah 148:12), citing Terumas Hadeshen, says:
(As Shach there :13 points out, delaying giving the gift until after the holiday would lead to איבה, the non-Jew resenting the Jew for having ignored the occasion. "Especially nowadays," he says, "when it is uncommon for them to go and thank [their deity, for the gift].")
However, in uncensored editions of Shulchan Aruch (such as here), the reference is explicated as being to "ביום ח' שאחר ניט"ל שקורין ני"א יאר" - "the eighth day after Christmas, which they call 'New Year.'" Which would mean that giving a non-Jew a gift on Christmas itself might still be problematic either as supporting idolatry or as chukos hagoyim, but if you give it as a New Year's gift, there'd be more room for leniency. (Why the posekim aren't as concerned about the chukos hagoyim angle regarding New Year's, I don't know.)
Though I suppose that it might be argued that conditions were different then - when the non-Jews' resentment could lead to real physical danger to the individual and to the Jewish community generally - than now.
No (Avodah Zara 2a) If Christianity is considered Avodah Zarah then it is clearly assur. I know that not everyone holds that it is but in cases of doubt about such a serious issur D'Orisah as Avodah Zarah we need to be machmir.