The Lubavitcher Rebbe zt"l has a different take on it. In his talk of Shabbos Parshas Vayeishev 5734 (Sichos Kodesh 5734 1:201-202), he explains that Yosef told over these dreams precisely because he hoped to use them to defuse his brothers' jealousy toward him.
Previous dreams recorded in the Torah were basically meant to be taken at face value. For example, Yaakov's dream of the angels going up and down the ladder (Gen. 28:12) meant (among other things) just that: as Rashi says there, the angels who had accompanied him in Eretz Yisrael were returning Above, and a new cohort of angels was coming down. Later, too, when Yaakov dreamt about the sheep mating (ibid. 31:12), it presaged how he would breed his flocks and get more of the types of animals to which he was entitled based on his deal with Lavan.
So here: Yosef knew full well that his brothers are jealous of the preferential treatment he's getting, and indeed that "they couldn't speak peaceably to him" (ibid. 37:4). So when he dreamt about their sheaves bowing to his, he immediately told it to them, hoping that they'd take it in its most literal sense: the next time they'd harvest their crops, his would be of better quality and would fetch a higher price. "If my advantage over you is nothing more than such a trifle," he was implying, "then you have nothing to be jealous about." However, this plan backfired: in their prejudice against him they assumed that there's more here than meets the eye, and that such a dream really means that Yosef thinks he will rule over them.
So he tried again with his next dream. In it the stars bow to him, which might be understood to mean that the celestial bodies associated with their welfare (their mazalos) will be doing so, but not the brothers themselves. It might even be taken to mean that he, Yosef, is the only one without a good mazal of his own, and he needs theirs to assist him ("bow to him" in service) - which would mean that, on the contrary, they've got an advantage over him. When this time they ignored him, Yosef repeated the dream to Yaakov, hoping that he at least, free of such prejudices, would come up with the above seemingly correct explanation; but Yaakov too understood it in a non-literal sense like the brothers had done with the previous one.