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In many, if not most, cases where we fulfill a positive commandment Chazal instituted a blessing (B'rachah) over fulfilling that command.

Looking through Shulchan Aruch Yoreh Deah 292, and other discussions of the commandment to send away the mother bird prior to taking her eggs/chicks, I do not see any mention of a blessing over this command.

Is there such a blessing (did I just overlook it?), and if not, why not?

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The sefer Shaleiach Tishalach (Hebrew ed. p. 38) cites a dispute about this. According to Raavad, Rokeach, the Aruch HaShulchan and others, one indeed recites a blessing before fulfilling this mitzvah. But most Rishonim (e.g., Rashba, Meiri, Rabbeinu Bachya) and many Acharonim disagree, and this seems to be the prevailing custom. Some recommend saying the blessing without mentioning Hashem's name: "Baruch atah melech ha'olam asher kid'shanu bmitzvosav v'tzivanu l'shaleia'ch ha'kein."

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And not "al shiluach hakein" ... interesting ... –  Shalom Apr 26 '10 at 1:22
    
There is discussion about that point... R' Chaim Kanievski deals with it in his sefer Nachal Eisan, I believe he is the one who decided that it should be "L-" rather than "al". –  Dave Apr 26 '10 at 4:53

You overlooked it. It's in the Pitchei Tshuvah YD 292 sk 2

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