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When God addressed Moshe there was an accompanying miracle (and there's midrash about Avraham's case being special too), so it was pretty clear what was happening, but how did the other prophets come to know that it was God who was speaking to them -- not a delusion, not a trick, but divine communication? Was it immediate, or could there have been some period during which the prophet wasn't yet sure what was happening to him?

(This question arose out of why did Yonah run away?.)

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To paraphrase a Rav to whom I once asked in college, "How does one know he has the ability, knowledge, competence to Pasken?" - Trust me, and I mean this with no disrespect, you haven't got it. ;-) – Seth J Feb 11 '13 at 17:26
Sure, but didn't Isaiah say the same thing about himself? – Monica Cellio Feb 11 '13 at 17:29

In general, it seems the prophet would fall into a prophetic state, so it would be clear that it wasn't just a random voice speaking to him. See, for example, Berishis 15 where God appears to Avraham first in "a vision", and then in "a deep sleep... a dread, a great darkness".

However, it seems that sometimes Nevuah sounded just like a person's voice, and the prophet could have initially confused it for a person speaking. See Shemuel 3 where Shemuel repeatedly mistakes the voice of God for Eli's. The passuk explains why this could happen:

Now Samuel did not yet know the LORD, neither was the word of the LORD yet revealed unto him

So it seems in certain cases there "could have been some period during which the prophet wasn't yet sure what was happening to him".

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What does it mean Samuel did not know about Hashem? He never heard about the God of Israel? – Jim Thio Mar 17 '14 at 7:26
@JimThio, it was his first experience of prophecy. – Ariel K Mar 17 '14 at 15:55

Rambam Hilchos Yesodei Hatorah chapter 7:1, 3 indicates that the person receiving the prophecy is a clear thinker whose mind is connected with God constantly. He states:

ובעת שתנוח עליו הרוח--תתערב נפשו במעלת המלאכים הנקראים אישים, וייהפך לאיש אחר, ויבין בדעתו שאינו כמות שהיה, אלא שנתעלה על מעלת שאר בני אדם החכמים

Therefore I believe that the prophet does know that she or he is having a true spiritual experience, though, based on the story with Samuel cited in the other answer I would wager to say it is unclear exactly the nature of that experience. Meaning, is it divine inspiration (ruach hakadosh), an angelic revelation, a bat-kol or actual prophecy.

See also, the Rambam's Guide for the Perplexed pt. III, chapters 32-48.

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