I remember learning in a shiur (sorry, can't think of the reference) that Chazal was able to essentially destroy the yetzer hora of avodah zora but with the side effect that there wouldn't be nevuah anymore. Is this true? If so, can anyone produce a reference to this in the Gemara or Midrash?
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The Gemara does not mention this side-effect. It just mentions the loss of "reward" for fighting the yetzer hara of avodah zara. There may have been other effects, and it may be that this reward includes specific spiritual benefits, such as the ability to reach Nevuah. For example, I think R.A. Kaplan says that the yetzer hara for avodah zara was the desire to reach pseudo-spiritual meditative highs without the hard work necessary to reach real ruach haKodesh. When people lost this 'meditative drive' they also lost the connected 'ability' for ruach haKodesh and Nevuah.
The source for this connection is the Gra's commentary on Seder Olam Rabba ch. 30: The Seder Olam refers to the cessation of prophecy at the time of Alexander the Great: הוא אלכסנדר מוקדון שמלך י"ב שנה. עד כאן היו הנביאים מתנבאים ברוה"ק מכאן ואילך הט אזנך ושמע דברי חכמים. The Gra in his commentary explains: פירוש משהרגו יצר הרע, בטלה הנבואה. This idea is often cited by R. Tzadok ha-kohen mi-Lublin in his seforim.