If someone is sentenced to death by a Jewish court and is being held prisoner until the sentence can be carried out, if he escapes, is that a sin for him?
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Likely not. The responsibility to punish seems to be communal - to put the person to death "so that others may hear about it & be afraid" - or an obligation of the court or king. It doesn't seem to be a personal obligation. As 1040 said though, there seems to be aspects of atonement; for example, the condemned is expected to repent before we exact the penalty, and for a few sins we say that death or exile isn't enough to expiate the sin. Perhaps the story of Achan (Joshua 7) is relevant as well. Perhaps the fact that all Jews suffered for his theft indicates that it is a communal requirement to catch & punish thieves, not just Joshua's or the Elders'. Achan is asked to make a public confession, but the main point of that seems to be to show that [the loss in battle was just &] the lottery method was accurate (Rashi v19).
The death penalty is atonement. So if he runs away he does not get the proper atonement. All sins do is distance you from the Lord. So does not getting atonement.