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Why does the Shaliach Tzibbur start Shacharis on Shabbos from Shochein Ad, on Yom Tov from HaKeil, and on Rosh HaShana/Yom Kippur from HaMelech?

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also, according to nusach bnei Ashkenaz (German, not Eastern European), the sha"tz starts with a different section each yotiv (see Siddur Bnei Ashkenaz) –  Charles Koppelman Jun 7 '12 at 18:28
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2 Answers

Levush (Orach Chaim 488:1) says that we start with הא-ל בתעצומות on Yom Tov, because all of them are "in remembrance of the Exodus from Egypt," when Hashem displayed His mighty power. He also says (ibid. 584:1) that we start with המלך on Rosh Hashanah and Yom Kippur (and change the wording to המלך יושב, "the King is sitting"), because these are the times when He is sitting on His throne of judgement.

Not sure about Shochein Ad on Shabbos.

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Rabbi Sir Jonathan Sacks, in his Siddur commentary, addresses this question along similar lines as the Levush quoted by Alex:

The Leader begins at different points on different holy days of the year. On Shabbat he begins with "He inhabits eternity," emphasizing creation; on Yom Tov, with "God - in Your absolute power," laying stress on God as He acts in history; on Rosh HaShana and Yom Kippur, with "The King - enthroned," evoking ideas of justice and judgement.

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