What is the difference between Shavuos and Simchas Torah if they are both fundamentally celebrations of the Torah?
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Another angle, given in various places in Chassidus, and developed further in one of the Lubavitcher Rebbe's talks (Likkutei Sichos, vol. 14, pp. 156ff - English adaptation on chabad.org) is that Simchas Torah specifically commemorates the giving of the second Tablets on Yom Kippur, and so we celebrate it at the end of that season of holidays.
In this talk, too, the Rebbe points out two other related differences:
The difference essentially is:
Simchas Torah is a siyum-celebration of the tzibbur's reading of Torah Shebiksav.
Shavuos is a celebration of Hashem giving us the Torah and of the Maamad of Har Sinai, the miracles we experienced as a Tzibbur at Mt. Sinai.
The are also connections between the two, so you are probably on to something:
An answer from here although it is a Parable more than an answer. http://www.aish.com/h/su/saast/48967086.html